Cannabinoids are chemical compounds that are already present in the body of mammals, including humans. There are cannabinoid receptors in our body, to which the cannabinoids can dock. These receptors influence the release of neurotransmitters in the brain.
Certain cannabinoids are, of course, very well known to the general public. The THC is the best known cannabinoid and probably also the most popular as it is widely known for its psychoactive properties.
Probably the second best-known cannabinoid that has good medicinal properties is the CBD. There are over 100 other cannabinoids, but all of them have not yet been researched to the extent that they would be given special individual properties.
How is CBD made?
In order for you to better understand how CBD is made, it is important to explain the relationship between CBD and CBDa first. CBDa is the precursor to CBD and is produced as the cannabis plant grows.
The CBD is contained in the plant as an inactive form CBDa, which is referred to as the “acid precursor”. The CBDa is obtained by certain extraction processes and converted into an active form (CBD) by later heating.
The CBD extract also contains other substances, such as terpenes and flavonoids, which give the oil its typical aromas and distinctive fragrance. These fabrics also have great properties such as to support the immune system.
The most gentle and qualitatively purest procedure at the moment is the efficient CO2 extraction procedure. No solvents are used here. This method is costly but it produces a pure and high quality CBD full spectrum extract.
CO2 extraction process
The CO2 is pressed under high pressure into a container with very finely chopped hemp plants. Due to the strong pressure, the CO2 becomes liquid and absorbs all cannabinoids.
The liquid CO2 with all the cannabinoids is then passed on to a next container in which the pressure is slowly reduced. Due to the pressure loss, the oil separates from the CO2. The CO2 returns to its gaseous state and is returned to the original container. What remains is a pure full spectrum extract.
The cannabinoids obtained are then decarboxylated (activated). This means that they are heated to a temperature of approx. 135º C for a certain period of time (usually 30 – 45 minutes). In this step, among other things, the CBDa is converted to CBD, which is mixed with carrier oils or given for further processing.
Alcohol extraction method
Another method is the alcohol extraction method. The important molecules are obtained from the hemp plants using a high-percentage alcohol solution.
This technique can destroy other important molecules, which is why the CO2 extraction method is preferred.
Other key cannabinoids you should know
● What is CBC?
CBC (cannabichromene), is the third most common cannabinoid. But still very unknown, unlike CBD and THC.
Like CBD and THC, CBC also arises from the raw form of CBG. In some cases, it can even occur more frequently than CBD from stem to stem of a hemp plant. Like the CBD, it is not psychoactive and therefore does not cause intoxication.
Not much is known about CBC but it is believed to play a key role in the neurogenesis of pain relief, inflammation reduction and other diseases.
● What is CBG?
CBG (cannabigerol) may be one of the most important cannabinoids in the hemp plant. More important than THC and CBD? Maybe.
Without CBG there would be no THC, CBD and other cannabinoids in the hemp plant. It is the mother of all cannabinoids and, like CBD, is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid. CBG can be found in very high doses in very young hemp plants. The older they get, the less CBG you find. In the end it is often less than 1%
To be precise, CBG is formed by CBGa acid. Special enzymes break down the CBGA in the plant and transform it into THC, CBD or other cannabinoids.
The CBG has not yet been researched as far as CBD and THC. However, since it has a specific effect on certain diseases (especially eye pressure) and has many other positive properties, more and more clinical studies are being carried out with it.
● What is CBN?
CBN (cannabinol) is an oxidation product of THC and therefore also slightly psychoactive. It can cause a slight intoxication. It is often found in old and dried cannabis plants and arises when THC is heated or exposed to oxygen.
In contrast to THC, it affects only 10% of the CB1 and CB2 receptors. Some studies have shown that it can stimulate the growth of bone tissue and demonstrate other properties such as CBD and THC.
But here too there have only been individual studies and experiments which are gradually increasing.