Basalt is the most important constituent material of the earth’s oceanic crust and the lunar sea. It is a material with a high comprehensive utilization value.
Let’s explore the mysteries of basalt together!
Mineral composition of basalt
The main components of basalt are silicon dioxide, iron oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, etc. Among them, the silica content is the most, accounting for about 45%-50%.
Properties of Basalt
Basalt is a type of extrusive volcanic rock. It is a rock with a dense or foam-like structure formed by the magma erupted by a volcano and solidified after cooling on the surface. It belongs to magmatic rock.
Basalt is a hard rock with a Mohs hardness of 5-7. Basalt is dense, fine-grained, and glassy.
The color of basalt is mostly black, dark brown, or dark green. The basalts near the Volcanic Group are mostly blue-gray, but also dark red, orange, and yellow.
The main classification of basalt
Basalt has different classifications according to its composition, mineral composition, structure, and formation environment.
• According to the component, it can be divided into pull-spot basalt, alkaline basalt, and high-alumina basalt;
• According to the structure, it can be divided into stomata-like basalt, almond-like basalt, and basalt glass;
• According to the mineral, it can be divided into olivine basalt, perilla pyroxene basalt, and so on.
Is pumice basalt?
Pumice, a porous basalt, is a very precious porous stone formed from volcanic glass, minerals, and air bubbles after a volcanic eruption.
It is called “pumice stone” because of its large number of pores, lightweight, and can even float in water. Pumice is a good abrasive material, which can be used to grind metals and stones.
Wide range of uses for basalt
Basalt has low crushing value, strong corrosion resistance, and strong compression resistance, and is widely used, and has very high economic and industrial value.
Basalt can produce the best effect in the construction industry, industrial field, national defense, and military industry.
1. Construction industry
It is most often crushed for use as aggregate in construction projects. The crushed basalt is used for roadbeds, asphalt pavement, railway ballast, drainage yard filter stones, etc. The manufactured artificial sand can be used for concrete aggregate, roadbeds, ballast, etc.
2. Decorative material
Basalt has good wear resistance and low water absorption. It is widely used in interior decoration and decorative landscapes. Basalt is cut into dimensional stones or sheets and sometimes polished for use as floor tiles, architectural finishes, monuments, and other stonework.
3. Basalt fiber
Basalt fiber has low thermal conductivity, low moisture absorption rate, and chemical stability, forming a new type of composite material with lightweight and high strength. It is used for reinforcement of bridges, tunnels, and civil engineering, and can significantly improve the bearing capacity of concrete columns.
4. National defense industry
Basalt has the advantages of high-temperature resistance, corrosion resistance, and stable chemical properties, and is an ideal filter material. It has wide applications in the field of military industry, such as tanks, armored vehicles, explosion-proof vehicles, shell boxes, and so on.
If you are interested in basalt, you can understand the mysteries and processes of basalt in details, to maximize its use of it economically.