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Important Named Reactions for Students in Chemistry

To help you revise the important named reactions in organic chemistry class 11 and class 12, we have curated a list of some organic reactions which offer a quick schematic preview explaining their description, mechanism, applications and variations.

Last minute important named reactions revision to prepare for organic chemistry:

  1. ​Sandmeyer Reaction

The diazonium (C,H,N,CI) is prepared by treating ice cold solution of Aniline in excess of dilute HCI with an aqueous solution of NaNO2 at low temperature (0-5)°C and the reaction is know Diazotization Reaction, Bromo and Chloro alkanes can be prepared by treating a freshly prepared Diazonium Salt with Cuprous Bromide or Cuprous Chloride and this reaction is called as Sandmeyer Reaction.

Sandmeyer Reaction

  1. Gattermann Reaction

This Reaction is the same as the Sandmeyer Reaction. But the only difference between both of them is that here we use Copper Powder (Cu) in the presence of HI/HRr, and in Sandmeyer Reaction we use Cu,Ch/Cu;Br, as catalyst.

Gattermann Reaction

  1.  Balz-Schiemann Reaction

It is a method of preparation of Fluorobenzene. In this method Diazonium Salt is reacted with Fluoroboric Acid, followed by heating the complex compound formed.

Balz-Schiemann Reaction

  1.  Finkelstein Reaction

Alkyl Iodide is often prepared by the Reaction of Alkyl Chloride or Alkyl Bromide with sodium Iodide (Nal) in Dry Acetone.

Finkelstein Reaction

  1.  Swartz Reaction

Fluroalkane is prepared by treating Alkyl Chloride or Mide) in the presence of metallic Fluorides such as AgF etc.

Swartz Reaction

  1.  Fitting Reaction

Aryl Halides prepared with Sodium (Na) in dry ether to give analogous compounds where two aryl groups joined.

  1. Wurtz – Fittig Reaction

When a mixture of Aryl Halide and Alkyl Halide gets treated with sodium in dry ether, we get an

Arene. Mae

Wurtz- Fittig Reaction

  1.  Kolbe’s Reaction

Sodium Phenoxide (C,H,ONa) when heated with Carbon dioxide (CO2) at

400 Kelvin under a pressure of (4-7) at followed by acidification gives 2- Hydroxybenzoic AI

(Salicylic acid) as the main product. This Reaction is called Kolbe’s Reaction..

Kolbe’s Reaction

  1.  Reimer- Tiemann Reaction

When Phenol  (C,H,OH) reacts with Chloroform (CHCl.) in the presence of NaOH (Sodium Hydroxide), a CHO group is introduced at the ortho position of the Ring. This Reaction is known as the Rein Tiemann Reaction.

Reimer- Tiemann Reaction

  1. Rosenmund Reaction

The Rosenmund Reduction is a hydrogenation process in which an Acyl Chloride is selectively reduced to an Aldehyde. The response is catalyzed via Palladium on Barium Sulfate.

 Rosenmund Reaction

  1. Coupling Reaction

Benzene diazonium chloride reacts with phenol in which the phenol molecule at its para position is mixed with the diazonium salt to give p- hydroxyazobenzene

Coupling Reaction 

12.  Gattermann – Koch Reaction

Benzene diazonium chloride is reacted with phenol wherein the phenol molecule at its para position is mixed with the diazonium salt to present p- hydroxyazobenzene.

Gattermann – Koch Reaction

13. Steppe Reaction or Stephen Reduction

When the Ethereal solution of a Nitrile is decreased with Stannous chloride (SnCh) inside the presence of Hydrochloric Acid (HCI) at room temperature, Imine Hydrochloride (R-CH=NH.HI) is fashioned. This up on Hydrolysis with boiling H,O offers Aldehyde and the Reaction is called stephen Reaction.

 Steppe Reaction or Stephen Reduction

14. Clemmensen Reduction

Aldehyde and Ketone are reduced to corresponding hydrocarbons when they are reacted with a mixture of Zinc Mercury Alloy and Concentrated HCI. This reaction is called as Clemmensen Reduction

Clemmensen Reduction

15. Wolff – Kishner Reduction

Carbonyl group of Aldehydes and Ketones on treatment with Hydrazine which on heating with

Potassium Hydroxide in high boiling solvent (ethylene glycol) reduced to CHa group.

Wolff – Kishner Reduction

16. Hoffman Bromamide Reaction

Hoffmann Bromamide Degradation Reaction is a rearrangement of reaction to form a primary amine from a primary amide. Which results in an amine having one fewer carbon atom. The reaction was discovered by August Wilhelm von Hofmann.

Hoffman Bromamide Reaction

17. Aldol Condensation

In Aldol Condensation Reaction two Molecules of an Aldehyde or a Ketone condense in presence of a Dilute Alkali (Dilute NaOH etc)  to form a b-hydroxy aldehyde or b-hydroxyketone rep. These b-hydroxyaldehydes or ketones are collectively called Aldols.

Aldol Condensation

18. Cannizzaro Reaction

Aldehydes which do not contain an a-hydrogen atom when treated with concentrated Alkali Solution (NaH) undergo disproportionation reaction, ie, self-Oxidation/Reduction. As a result one molecule is oxidized to Carboxylic Acid and another molecule is reduced to Alcohol.

Cannizzaro Reaction

19. Friedel – Crafts Reaction

Friedel Crafts Reaction states various ways of attaching substitutes to aromatic rings. Two major types include acylation and alkylation reactions. 

Friedel- Crafts Reaction

20. Grignard Synthesis

Grignard Synthesis includes the addition of alkyl, vinyl, allyl, and aryl-magnesium halides to a carbonyl organization in an aldehyde or ketone. It is called after French chemist Francois Auguste Victor Grignard.

Grignard Synthesis

21. Esterification Reaction or Fischer Esterification

In Fischer Esterification, an ester is formed by the conversion of carboxylic acid in the presence of excess alcohol and a strong acid as catalysts. The reaction was discovered by Emil Fischer.

Fischer Esterification

22. Williamson Synthesis

It is an important Laboratory method for the preparation of Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Ether. 

23.  Hell-Volhard Zelinsky Reaction

It involves the halogenation of carboxylic acids at the alpha-carbon place. The reaction was discovered with the aid of  German scientists Carl Magnus von Hell, Jacob Volhard, and scientist Nicolay Zelinsky.

Hell-Volhard Zelinsky Reaction

24. Etard Reaction

             Etard reaction with partial oxidation of aromatic ring-like Benzene by way of the use of Chromyl Chloride. Since Chromyl Chloride is a vulnerable oxidizing agent, therefore it’s miles used with a non-polar solvent like Carbon Tetrachloride. The end result is an Aldehyde.

         Etard Reaction

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