Cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaics

Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a stable crystalline compound that is made from elements named as cadmium and tellurium. The usage of it is mostly as the semiconducting material in an infrared optical window and cadmium telluride photovoltaics. To create a p–n junction solar PV cell CdTe is generally pack in with cadmium sulfide.

Cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic is a method that practices the cadmium telluride (CdTe) as the semiconductor substance in photovoltaic (PV) cells which will convert the light of the sun into direct current (DC) electricity. Photovoltaic (PV) cells are an essential part of solar-electric energy systems, which are becoming progressively important as other sources of value power.


Some advantages offered by Cadmium telluride over crystalline silicon (Si), the substance initially used in the making of PV cells. CdTe functional layer can be made very thin, on the order of a few micrometers or 10-6 meter, extreme thinner than a layer of Si. At high temperatures and low levels of light the Cadmium telluride offers enhanced efficiency than Si. Moreover CdTe PV cells need less energy to produce as compared to Si PV cells do. Tellurium (Te) and Cadmium (Cd) are both products of copper, zinc, and gold mining.


Over the worldwide some worry is present that Te supply, quite a bit of which exists in China. But, the sea ground holds abundant Te, so if a method can be found to mine it, deficiencies won’t represent a matter in the long haul.
Cadmium telluride technology offers potential for the upcoming of alternative energy, if only because conventional energy sources remain to suffer because of increasing regulation, scrutiny, and price instability. At present, electricity produced by natural-gas-fired, coal-fired, or nuclear power plants significantly less costly than PV-derived electricity. After some time this condition may change as PV technology turn into less costly and conventional energy sources develop perpetually dangerous and costly.


Benefits

The CdTe thin-film solar cells benefits contain:

  • It can use are less expensive manufacturing technology to produce low-cost cells.
  • Use of single-junction for it can convert sunlight into electricity.

Production

The most widely recognized CdTe solar-powered cells comprise of basic p-n heterojunction arrangement comprising a p-fixed CdTe coating coordinated with an n-fixed cadmium sulfide (CdS) coating, which serves as a window layer. This structure is like the heterojunction in CIGS cells. Like thin-film solar technologies, transporter assortment is accomplished by assortment or the field-assisted collection or drift


The deposition of CdTe thin-film techniques contain:

  • physical-vapor deposition
  • close-spaced sublimation
  • sputter deposition
  • vapor-transport deposition
  • spray deposition
  • electrodeposition
  • Metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition
  • Screen-print deposition.


CdTe solar glass cells are accomplished by the addition of fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO2: F) as a good-quality transparent conductive oxide (TCO) and a electrical connection normally carbon paste with copper (Cu) or a metal. One drawback of usage Cu in the back contact is the slow diffusion of Cu atoms into the CdS and CdTe layers, which creates defects and promotes Cu addition at the CdTe/CdS junction.


After the discovery of a cadmium chloride (CdCl2) vapor treatment, CdTe solar cell performance was significantly enhanced. At temperatures near 390°C this hardening process is completed in the presence of oxygen after the CdTe layer is developed on the CdS layer and previous to the back-contact deposition. The CdCl2 treatment has positive effects on the CdTe solar cell, such as the passivation of flaws and the development of bigger CdTe grains.


Applications of CdTe:

  1. The photovoltaics of CdTe states to a photovoltaic (PV) technology that relies on the usage of the small film of cadmium telluride, a semiconductor layer planned to absorb and transform sunlight into electricity.
  2. To create multipurpose infrared detector material (HgCdTe) mercury can be alloyed with CdTe. A little amount of zinc alloyed with CdTe creates an outstanding gamma-ray detector (CdZnTe) and solid-state X-ray.

  3. It is used as an infrared optical material for optical lenses and windows but it has lesser application and is inadequate by its harmfulness such that some optical houses will think through working with it. An initial form of CdTe for IR consumption was advertised under the trademarked name of Irtran-6 however this is outdated.
  4. For electro-optic modulators CdTe can be applied. It has the highest electro-optic coefficient of the linear electro-optic outcome between II-VI compound crystals.
  • It’s doping with chlorine can be used as a radiation detector for alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, and x-rays, and. At room temperature, CdTe can operate permitting the creation of dense detectors for a large variety of applications in nuclear spectroscopy.

Conclusion:

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