PARP Antibody, full form Poly ADP Ribose Polymerase, is a chromatin-bound enzyme that acts as a catalyst and accelerates the transmission of ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate) Ribose from nicotinamide to histones as well as H1 and H2B. Parp antibody is a nuclear enzyme that is involved in the DNA pair mechanism.
More Facts about PARP
PARP, in actual, alters the nuclear proteins with poly (ADP-ribose). This alteration depends on DNA and is involved in the direction of different significant cellular processes for example proliferation, tumor transformation, and differentiation. Moreover, it also engaged in the regulation of molecular actions that may be involved in the recovery of cells from any DNA damage. There is a saying that PARP maybe helps in the site mutation in Fanconi anemia and may take part in the pathophysiology of diabetes of type 1.
PARP, a 116 KDa (Kilo Daltons) nuclear poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, as told above, plays a specific role in Cancer biology like DNA repair, in response to environmental stress. This protein can be served by many ICE like caspases (a family of enzymes) in vitro and is one of the main cleavage targets of caspase-3 in vivo. In human PARP, the cleavage occurs between Asp214 and Gly215, which separates the PARP N-terminus DNA binding domain (24 KDa) from the carboxyterminal catalytic domain (89 KDa).
Besides this, PARP helps cells to maintain their capability such as cleavage of PARP facilitates cellular dismantle, and serves as an indicator for cells that are dying or suiciding.
By inoculating animals with an artificial peptide related to caspase cleavage location in PARP, polyclonal antibodies are made. These antibodies are then purified by peptide affinity chromatography and protein A.
Role of PARP in DNA Repair
PARP is used for DNA repair. In humans, there are 17 members of the PARP family which have studied well. Out of these 17, PARP 1, PARP 2, tankyrase 1, tankyrase 2, and vPARP are considered to have a part to play in DNA repair but only PARP 1 is considered for more than 90% cell PARP activity and is more studied than the other members of PARP family. PARP enzymes are made of four domains which are: caspase cleaved domain, DNA binding domain, a catalytic domain, and a central auto modification domain. The DNA binding domain has two zinc finger motifs. If in the presence of PARP, DNA gets damaged, the DNA binding domain will bind the DNA from damage site and tempt a conformational shift.
One should store the product at –20°C. It is recommended to not aliquot the antibody. One should also know that PARP is supplied in:
- 10 mM sodium HEPES (pH 7.5)
- 150 mM NaCl, 100 µg/ml BSA
- 50% glycerol.