A prodrug is a pharmacological compound that is intrinsically inactive in nature until it encounters a metabolic process that converts it into an active drug. This process is referred to as a metabolic transformation. This procedure can either be enzymatic or nonenzymatic in nature. This means the involvement of a catalyst that breaks off the inactive part of the drug to make it active.
All chemical drugs have side effects due to their complex composition of chemicals. However, to control these effects, three distinct means can be undertaken: biological, physical, and chemical.
- The biological method has to do with using a different site of administering the drug. However, this may often be rejected by patients due to some sort of personal preference, et cetera.
- The physical means of controlling undesirable side effects is to change the form of dosage. For example, controlling the way drugs are delivered.
- The chemical approach is to change the composition of the drug such that it becomes more efficient in bringing about the desired results and cuts out the negative effects.
New drugs are difficult to create, introduce in the market, and take a lot of time and effort. This is often the reason why it is preferred to alter an existing drug to enhance its performance. Patents and approvals from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are difficult to procure. A prodrug comes in handy in such cases. This is because due to alterations, unwanted chemicals can be made dormant and active ingredients can be designed to activate themselves under biotransformation. As opposed to soft drugs, which have all activated ingredients, prodrugs are a lot more controlled in nature.
Why The Drugs Store Approach Is Preferred
Pro drug store sell these drugs that are easily modifiable in numerous ways. This makes them a favorable choice by pharmacists and chemical specialists. Below are some reasons as to why prodrugs are used:
Increase patient acceptability
Ill tasting medicines can be modified to make it readily acceptable by patients with serious health diseases such as gastric pains and irritation.
Experiments in the past have shown that some drugs attach themselves only to special sites and/or organs in the body. Introducing a prodrug can lead to enhanced site attachment and early acceptance of the drug.
Some drugs take hours to dissolve in the system. Prodrugs can be attached to polar groups that expedite the solubility of the drug after its intake.
A toxic drug may be designed such that it is masked as soon as it is administered and unmasked when it reaches the site/organ.
A drug may be modified such that it is activated slowly so that the person who is administered the drug can cope with metabolic, et cetera, changes.
A drug’s polarity can be adjusted so that it can be smoothly carried to the target and absorbed efficiently.
Often times some drugs are better to be in liquid form while others work better in the form of tablets. Altering a drug to enforce certain new characteristics in it may require a change in its physical appearance and this is possible through the use of these drugs available at pro drug stores.
Applications Of The Prodrug Approach
One of the widely accepted reasons as to why drugs get rejected is their taste. Especially in the case where kids are involved, it is integral that the taste of the medicine is pleasant. Generally, there are two approaches to overcome this problem. The first is the decrease of solubility of the drug in the saliva. And the second is to lower the bonding of the drug with the taste receptors.
Decreasing gastrointestinal absorption
The idea is for a drug to not be soluble in the early stages of the gut. This kind of treatment is useful when colonic diseases are considered. The prodrug approach aids in increasing medicinal efficacy.
Enhancement of gastrointestinal tolerance
One of the most common side effects of drugs is gastric damage that occurs as a consequence of direct contact, or through interaction with the mucosal layer. Prodrugs can help protect other organs from damage and unwarranted side effects.
The drug may get disrupted as soon as it enters the esophagus when given orally. This decreases the chances of the desirable dosage reaching the target site in the body. The prodrug approach can help with the stabilization of such drugs.